So, previously I thought that there was some conflict that was causing the data going from my MBP settings, through iCloud, iTunes, and my iPhone to cause my calendars to sync incorrectly. In fact, it turns out that there is something going on between Apple and Google for the calendaring through iCloud.
Basically, from what I gathered on the call with Apple support, “something at Google is not allowing the iCloud service to manage, add, edit, etc the events from Google Calendar”. Reading into this, I am guessing that Google is not allowing iCloud to hit their CalDav servers and so iCloud gets information from the MBP and sends this to my phone which is why my iPhone is out of date.
The solution is relatively simple: Make sure that both the MBP and the iPhone use the direct-to-google account information and iCloud calendars are unselected in settings.
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